Kurdistan (kurdisch کوردستان Kurdistan; arabisch كردستان, DMG Kurdistān; persisch کردستان Hauptstadt war Ahlat, später dann Van, Muş und Diyarbekir. Laut kurdischen Quellen ist auch die Region um das Flüchtlingslager Makhmur südwestlich der Regionalhauptstadt Erbil unter Beschuss geraten. Iraqi Kurdistan in Iraq (disputed hatched).svg. Flagge. Flag of littlebeetkids.com Kurzdaten. Hauptstadt, Erbil. Staatsform, Republik. Währung, Irakischer Dinar (irDin).
Autonome Region KurdistanKurdistan (kurdisch کوردستان Kurdistan; arabisch كردستان, DMG Kurdistān; persisch کردستان Hauptstadt war Ahlat, später dann Van, Muş und Diyarbekir. Wir fliegen über Wien oder Istanbul direkt nach Erbil, in die Hauptstadt der kurdischen Autonomieregion im Norden des Irak – wie seit Jahren. Er erlebt den Alltag der Menschen, nimmt teil an ihren Festen und besucht das größte jesidische Heiligtum Lalesh. Lohmüller reist nach.
Hauptstadt Kurdistan Menu nawigacyjne VideoTop 1 PMCO iraq - The Kurdish Jupaa
The world's largest deposit of rock sulfur is located just southwest of Erbil. In July , Turkey and the Kurdistan Regional Government signed an agreement by which Turkey will supply the KRG with refined petroleum products in exchange for crude oil.
Crude deliveries are expected to occur on a regular basis. Due to the lack of a proper census , the exact population and demographics of Kurdistan Region are unknown, but the government has started to publish more detailed figures.
The population of the region is notoriously difficult to ascertain, as the Iraqi government has historically sought to minimize the importance of the Kurdish minority while Kurdish groups have had a tendency to exaggerate the numbers.
Kurdistan has a religiously diverse population. The dominant religion is Islam , which is professed by the majority of Kurdistan Region's inhabitants.
These include Kurds, Iraqi Turkmen, and Arabs, belonging mostly to the Shafi'i school of Sunni Islam. There is also a small number of Shia Feyli Kurds ,  as well as adherents of Sufi Islam.
In , the Kurdistan Regional Government enacted a law to formally protect religious minorities. Christianity is professed by Assyrians and Armenians.
Yezidis make up a significant minority, with some , in ,  or , as of ,  The Yarsan Ahl-e Haqq or Kakai religion numbers around , adherents respectively;  these, like Yezidism, are sometimes said to be related to the pre-Islamic indigenous religion of Kurdistan.
The Zoroastrian religion have around followers according to an official research from the religious affairs committee from the parliament.
A tiny ethno-religious community of Mandeans also exists within the semi-autonomous region. The National Association of Jews from Kurdistan in Israel stated there is a small number of expatriate Jews in the Kurdistan Region, but no Jews remaining from original Jewish communities.
Mudhafaria Minaret in the Minare Park, Erbil. Chaldean Catholic Mar Yousif Cathedral in Ankawa. Widespread economic activity between Kurdistan and Turkey has given the opportunity for Kurds of Turkey to seek jobs in Kurdistan.
A Kurdish newspaper based in the Kurdish capital estimates that around 50, Kurds from Turkey are now living in Kurdistan .
The Kurdistan Region is hosting 1. There were about , in the area prior to with the rest arriving in as a result of unrest in Syria and attacks by the Islamic State.
Before the establishment of the Kurdistan Regional Government, primary and secondary education was almost entirely taught in Arabic.
Higher education was always taught in Arabic. This however changed with the establishment of the Kurdistan autonomous region.
The first international school, the International School of Choueifat opened its branch in Kurdistan Region in Other international schools have opened and British International Schools in Kurdistan is the latest with a planned opening in Suleimaniah in September Kurdistan Region's official universities are listed below, followed by their English acronym if commonly used , internet domain, establishment date and latest data about the number of students.
In Human Rights Watch reported that journalists in Kurdistan who criticize the regional government have faced substantial violence, threats, and lawsuits, and some have fled the country.
In Human Rights Watch found that some health providers in Iraqi Kurdistan had been involved in both performing and promoting misinformation about the practice of female genital mutilation.
Girls and women receive conflicting and inaccurate messages from media campaigns and medical personnel on its consequences. Recognition by the KRG of the frequency of this custom among Kurds came during a conference program commemorating the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women.
British lawmaker Robert Halfon sees Kurdistan as a more progressive Muslim region than the other Muslim countries in the Middle East.
Although the Kurdish regional parliament has officially recognized ethnic minorities such as Assyrians , Turkmen , Arabs , Armenians , Mandeans , Shabaks and Yezidis , there have been accusations of Kurdish discrimination against those groups.
The Assyrians have reported Kurdish officials' reluctance in rebuilding Assyrian villages in their region while constructing more settlements for the Kurds affected during the Anfal campaign.
Assyrians have also accused the Kurdistan Regional Government of encouraging forced demographic change of villages that have been historically inhabited by native Assyrians.
These land-grabs have led to a sharp decline in the Assyrian population of those areas, coincided with a drastic increase of the Kurdish population.
The Kurdish regional government has also been accused of trying to Kurdify other regions such as the Nineveh plains and Kirkuk by providing financial support for Kurds who want to settle in those areas.
While Kurdish forces held the city of Kirkuk , Kurdish authorities attempted to Kurdify the city. Turkmen and Arab residents in Kirkuk experienced intimidation, harassment and were forced to leave their homes, in order to increase the Kurdish demographic in Kirkuk and bolster their claims to the city.
Multiple Human Rights Watch reports detail the confiscation of Turkmen and Arab families' documents, preventing them from voting, buying property and travelling.
Turkmen residents of Kirkuk were detained by Kurdish forces and compelled to leave the city. Kurdish authorities expelled hundreds of Arab families from the city, demolishing their homes in the process.
United Nations reports since have documented that Kurdish authorities and Peshmerga militia forces were illegally policing Kirkuk and other disputed areas, and that these militia have abducted Turkmen and Arabs, subjecting them to torture.
In April , Human Rights Watch wrote that the Kurdish security force of KRG, the Asayish , blocked the roads to Erbil to prevent Assyrians from holding a protest.
According to demonstrators, the reason for the blocked protest was that Kurds in the Nahla Valley , mainly populated by Assyrians, encroached on land owned by Assyrians , without any action by courts or officials to remove the structures the Kurds built there.
In February , Human Rights Watch said Kurdistan Regional Government KRG forces are detaining men and boys who have fled the fighting in Mosul even after they have passed security checks.
Detainees were held for up to four months without any communication with their families. Relatives of these men and boys said that KRG and Iraqi forces didn't inform them of the places of their detained relatives and didn't facilitate any contact with them.
Human Rights Watch reported that Kurdistan Regional Government security forces and local police detained 32 unarmed protesters in Erbil on March 4, , at a peaceful demonstration against recent clashes in Sinjar.
A police chief ordered one protester who was released to permanently leave Erbil , where he was living. While in detention, protesters were not allowed to contact with anyone or have access to a lawyer.
In , Assyrian activists Juliana Taimoorazy and Matthew Joseph accused the Kurdistan Regional Government of issuing threats of violence against Assyrians living in the area who protested its independence referendum.
These accusations were later confirmed when the KDP-controlled provincial council of Alqosh issued a statement warning residents that they would face consequences for protesting the referendum.
Due to the devastation of the campaigns of the Iraqi army under Saddam Hussein and other former Iraqi regimes, the Kurdistan Region's infrastructure was never able to modernize.
After the safe haven was established, the Kurdistan Regional Government began projects to reconstruct the Kurdistan Region. Iraqi Kurdistan can be reached by land and air.
By land, Iraqi Kurdistan can be reached most easily by Turkey through the Habur Border Gate which is the only border gate between Iraqi Kurdistan and Turkey.
This border gate can be reached by bus or taxi from airports in Turkey as close as the Mardin or Diyarbakir airports, as well as from Istanbul or Ankara.
Iraqi Kurdistan has two border gates with Iran, the Haji Omaran border gate and the Bashmeg border gate near the city of Sulaymaniyah.
Iraqi Kurdistan has also a border gate with Syria known as the Faysh Khabur border gate. Iraqi Kurdistan has opened its doors to the world by opening two international airports.
Erbil International Airport and Sulaimaniyah International Airport , which both operate flights to Middle Eastern and European destinations.
The KRG spent millions of dollars on the airports to attract international carriers, and currently Turkish Airlines , Austrian Airlines , Lufthansa , Etihad , Royal Jordanian , Emirates , Gulf Air , Middle East Airlines , Atlas Jet , and Fly Dubai all service the region.
There are at least 2 military airfields in Iraqi Kurdistan. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the political entity in Iraq. For the parts of Kurdistan incorporated into Iraq since , see Iraqi Kurdistan. For the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria, see Rojava.
Autonomous region of Iraq. Coat of arms. Kurdistan Region in dark red Disputed territories controlled by the Iraqi federal government in light red.
Jahrhundert beschränkte sich Kurdistan im Herrschaftsbereich der Safawiden verwaltungstechnisch auf die Region Ardalan.
Hamadan und Lorestan wurden abgetrennt. Die Grenzen Kurdistans lassen sich nicht exakt definieren. Erschwerend kommt hinzu, dass es kein ethnisch homogenes kompaktes Siedlungsgebiet von Kurden gibt.
Die Grenzen Kurdistans sind daher sehr umstritten. Kurdistan liegt zwischen dem Grad nördlicher Breite und dem Kurdische Aktivisten verwenden für die zu Iran, der Türkei, Irak und Syrien gehörenden Kurdengebiete seit den ern verstärkt die Bezeichnungen Ostkurdistan, Nordkurdistan, Südkurdistan und Westkurdistan.
Es folgt eine Charakterisierung der einzelnen Teile Kurdistans nach den Staaten, zu denen die Gebiete gehören. Der türkische Teil macht je nach Definition ca.
Mittlerweile sind Kurden überall in der Türkei anzutreffen. Der türkische Teil wird vom Taurusgebirge geprägt.
Hier verlaufen die beiden Flüsse Euphrat und Tigris. Landwirtschaftlich wird diese Region durch Weizen-, Gersten-, Wein-, Oliven- und Pistazienanbau genutzt.
Neben Gebirgsverläufen ist die Region östlich des Euphrat durch ein Hochplateau geprägt. Im Rahmen des Südostanatolien-Projekts entlang des Euphrat und Tigris werden über 22 Staudämme errichtet.
Der syrische Teil Kurdistans wird von kurdischen Aktivisten als Rojava Westkurdistan bezeichnet. Das kurdische Siedlungsgebiet bildet hier bedingt durch die unnatürliche Grenzziehung kein zusammenhängendes Gebiet.
Die Autonome Region Kurdistan umfasst die Provinzen Arbil , Dohuk , Halabdscha und Sulaimaniya und Teile der Provinzen Diyala , Kirkuk und Ninawa.
Kurdistan ist Teil der Region des fruchtbaren Halbmonds , die in der Geschichte von vielen Kulturen und Reichen des Altertums besiedelt wurde.
Die Hattier und die nachfolgenden Hethiter besiedelten in der Bronzezeit zwischen v. Ihr Reich endete im Rahmen der einsetzenden Völkerwanderung siehe: Seevölker.
Nach der Zerstörung des hethitischen Reiches errichteten die Phryger unter ihrem König Midas ein Reich, das im 9.
Jahrhundert v. Anatolien beherrschte. Seit v. Syyrian kurdien määrä on noin 2—3,5 miljoonaa. He asuvat Pohjois-Syyriassa, heidän suosimiaan kaupunkeja ovat Kobane , Afrin , Qamishlo , Derik , Tirbe Sibi ja Hasake.
Monilla ei ole edes maan kansalaisuutta. Vuonna kurdit ottivat yhteen turvallisuuspoliisin kanssa, ja heitä syytettiin veljeilystä terroristijärjestöksi luokitellun PKK:n kanssa.
Turkin kurdijärjestöt Masoud Barzanin johdolla tukivat heidän pyrkimyksiään. Syyskuussa Yhdysvaltain presidentti Donald Trump päätti kotiuttaa huomattavasti Yhdysvaltain sotilaita Syyriasta, mikä käytännössä jätti Koillis-Syyrian kurdit Turkin alueelle kohdistaman hyökkäyksen armoille.
Hyökkäyksen kohteena olevalla alueella sijaitsee leirejä, joilla pidetään kurdien vangitsemia Isis-terrorijärjestön taistelijoita.
Irakin Kurdistanin autonominen alue. Irakin Kurdistaniin kuuluvat alueet. Irakin Kurdistanin vaatimat alueet.
Irakin valtion hallitsemat alueet. Pääartikkeli: Irakin Kurdistan. Pääartikkeli: Syyrian Kurdistan. Viitattu Nashville Kurds. Arkistoitu 1. Financial Times.
Helsinki: VAPK-Kustannus, ISBN Business Council in Iraq USBCI. Arkistoitu Yle Uutiset. Tauris, , ISBN , pp. Fisher, The Middle East: A History , pp.
Viitattu 6. University of Maryland. The Swedish Institute of International Affairs. Galler Tagblatt AG. Euroopan komissio. Report Card Wide Angle.
Al Monitor. The Kurds are a people of Indo-European origin. They speak an Iranian language known as Kurdish , and comprise the majority of the population of the region — however, included therein are Arab , Armenian , Assyrian ,  Azerbaijani , Jewish , Ossetian , Persian , and Turkish communities.
Most inhabitants are Muslim, but adherents to other religions are present as well — including Yarsanism , Yazidis , Alevis , Christians ,  and in the past, Jews , most of whom emigrated to Israel.
Iraqi Kurdistan is divided into six governorates , three of which and parts of others are under the control of the Kurdistan Regional Government.
Syrian Kurdistan is located primarily in northern Syria, and covers the province of Al Hasakah and northern Raqqa Governorate , northern Aleppo Governorate and also Jabal al-Akrad Mountain of the Kurds region.
Turkish Kurdistan encompasses a large area of Eastern Anatolia Region and southeastern Anatolia of Turkey and it is home to an estimated 6 to 8 million Kurds.
In A Dictionary of Scripture Geography published , John Miles describes Upper and Lower Kurdistan as following:.
Modern Curdistan is of much greater extent than the ancient Assyria, and is composed of two parts the Upper and Lower.
In the former is the province of Ardelan, the ancient Arropachatis, now nominally a part of Irak Ajami, and belonging to the north west division called Al Jobal.
It contains five others namely, Betlis, the ancient Carduchia, lying to the south and south west of the lake Van. East and south east of Betlis is the principality of Julamerick, south west of it is the principality of Amadia.
The pashalics of Kirkook and Solimania also comprise part of Upper Curdistan. Lower Curdistan comprises all the level tract to the east of the Tigris, and the minor ranges immediately bounding the plains and reaching thence to the foot of the great range, which may justly be denominated the Alps of western Asia.
The northern, northwestern and northeastern parts of Kurdistan are referred to as upper Kurdistan, and includes the areas from west of Amed to Lake Urmia.
The lowlands of southern Kurdistan are called lower Kurdistan. The main cities in this area are Kirkuk and Arbil. Much of the region is typified by a continental climate — hot in the summer, cold in the winter.
Despite this, much of the region is fertile and has historically exported grain and livestock. Kurdistan is one of the most mountainous regions in the world with a cold climate receiving annual precipitation adequate to sustain temperate forests and shrubs.
The region north of the mountainous region on the border with Iran and Turkey features meadow grasses and such wild trees as, Abies cilicica , Fagus sylvatica , Quercus calliprinos , Quercus brantii , Quercus infectoria , Quercus ithaburensis , Quercus macranthera , Cupressus sempervirens , Platanus orientalis , Pinus brutia , Juniperus foetidissima , Juniperus excelsa , Juniperus oxycedrus , Prunus cerasus , Salix alba , Fraxinus excelsior , Paliurus spina-christi , Olea europaea , Ficus carica , Populus euphratica , Populus nigra , Crataegus monogyna , Crataegus azarolus , cherry plum , rose hips , Cercis siliquastrum , pistachio trees , pear and Sorbus graeca.
The desert in the south is mostly steppe and would feature xeric plants such as palm trees , tamarix , date palm , fraxinus , poa , white wormwood and chenopodiaceae.
Animals found in the region include the Syrian brown bear , wild boar , gray wolf , the golden jackal , Indian crested porcupine , the red fox , goitered gazelle , Eurasian otter , striped hyena , Persian fallow deer , long-eared hedgehog , onager , mangar and the Euphrates softshell turtle.
Mountains are important geographical and symbolic features of Kurdish life, as evidenced by the saying "Kurds have no friends but the mountains.
Kurdistan is a region relatively rich in water, especially for countries in the Middle East region. Large part of water to the neighbor countries come from it.
It means that political stability and peace in the region are important to the water supply of the region and preventing wars. The plateaus and mountains of Kurdistan, which are characterized by heavy rain and snow fall, act as a water reservoir for the Near and Middle East, forming the source of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, as well as other numerous smaller rivers, such as the Little Khabur , Khabur , Tharthar, Ceyhan, Araxes , Kura, Sefidrud, Karkha, and Hezil.
These rivers, which flow from heights of three to four thousand meters above sea level, are significant both as water sources and for the production of energy.
Iraq and Syria dammed many of these rivers and their tributaries, and Turkey has an extensive dam system under construction as part of the GAP Southeast Anatolia Project ; though incomplete, the GAP already supplies a significant proportion of Turkey's electrical energy needs.
Due to the extraordinary archaeological richness of the region, almost any dam impacts historic sites. Kurdistan extends to Lake Urmia in Iran on the east.
The region includes Lake Van, the largest body of water in Turkey; the only lake in the Middle East with a larger surface is Lake Urmia — though not nearly as deep as Lake Van, which has a much larger volume.
Urmia , Van , as well as Zarivar Lake west of Marivan , and Lake Dukan near the city of Sulaymaniyah , are frequented by tourists.
Kurdistan Region is estimated to contain around 45 billion barrels 7. Extraction of these reserves began in Al-Hasakah province, also known as Jazira region, has geopolitical importance of oil and is suitable for agricultural lands.
In November , Exxon challenged the Iraqi central government's authority with the signing of oil and gas contracts for exploration rights to six parcels of land in Kurdistan, including one contract in the disputed territories, just east of the Kirkuk mega-field.
Notable companies active in Kurdistan include ExxonMobil , Total , Chevron , Talisman Energy , Genel Energy , Hunt Oil , Gulf Keystone Petroleum , and Marathon Oil.
Other mineral resources that exist in significant quantities in the region include coal , copper , gold , iron , limestone which is used to produce cement , marble , and zinc.
The world's largest deposit of rock sulfur is located just southwest of Erbil. In July , Turkey and the Kurdistan Region signed an agreement by which Turkey will supply the KRG with refined petroleum products in exchange for crude oil.
Crude deliveries are expected to occur on a regular basis. A typical Kurdish village in Hawraman , Kurdistan.
Canyon in Rawanduz in northern Iraqi Kurdistan. The city of Piranshahr , center of Mokrian district, northwestern Iran. Countryside in Sulaymaniyah.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Geographic region. For other uses, see Kurdistan disambiguation. Main article: History of the Kurds.
Main articles: Hurrians , Gutian people , Mannaeans , Corduene , Assyria , and Armenians. Ancient Kurdistan as Kard-uchi, during Alexander the Great 's Empire, 4th century BCE.
Main articles: Shaddadids , Rawadids , Hasanwayhids , Annazids , and Marwanids. Main articles: Kurdish—Turkish conflict —present and Iraqi—Kurdish conflict.
See also: Rojava conflict and Syrian Kurdish—Islamist conflict —present. Controlled by Syrian Kurds.T Moore, G. Erbil hat Funktionen übernommen, die früher Amman in Jordanien hatte, Kleine Wohnung Gestalten. The lowlands of southern Kurdistan are called lower Kurdistan. Selected filters.